Velazquez, like every great artist, tempered his method with doses of instinct.
—From Jonathan Brown and Carmen Garrido's "Technique of Genius", Yale University Press, 1998.
Velazquez, like every great artist, tempered his method with doses of instinct.
—From Jonathan Brown and Carmen Garrido's "Technique of Genius", Yale University Press, 1998.
“Sinking in” is the term used to describe what happens when a layer of paint loses its saturation. If you, like me, often use an earth palette, then this effect can easily be seen when a layer of Raw Umber or Burnt Umber has dried.
So why does it happen and what should be done about it?
It seems a simple question to a problem I believe is rather ubiquitous. As such, a straight-forward explanation and solution should be easy to find, right?
Not so. My understanding of the problem has evolved over the decades in an organic fashion, but never had I found what felt like a clear and direct diagnosis. Until now. What follows is an explanation I discovered that makes perfect sense… from a book published in 1912: The Technique of Painting by Charles Moreau-Vauthier.
On page 105 of the publication (page 157 in digital format) he introduces the topic with the following commentary:
Artists’ colourmen are often reproached for putting too much oil in their paints. They reply that the generality of artists prefer their paints thin, the true reason probably being that dealers are able to keep such colors longer. Some artists, on the contrary, spread their colors for a few minutes on blotting-paper, knowing that oil, in spite of the service it rendered, is a destructive agent.
The effects of its presence proclaim themselves as once in many cases by the sinking in of the paint. I will speak presently of the deterioration of color. The sinking is not, properly speaking, deterioration; it is due to the displacement of the oil in the impasto. The painter is not much disturbed by it, but it is an annoyance to him when he wishes to fuse a new pass with one already completed and when he wants to judge of the general effect.
To explain why this happens and what to do about it, he goes on to say:
If a layer of color be laid upon a porous material or another layer of coloue nor perfectly dry, it sinks in; that is to say, the oil, instead of remaining equally distributed round the particles of colored powder, travels between the particles, and soaks into the porous matter or the older layer of color, which is itself porous if not perfectly dry; the powder, thus deserted by it agglutinant, assumes a dull, indeterminate appearance, especially in the shadows, to which the oil had given depth and transparence. All that is required is to restore the oil the color has lost, or to give it a coat of varnish, the resin of which will fill up the pores of the colour abandoned by the oil; the paint will then recover its transparence and its liquid appearance.
As a special bonus, the author goes on to address another problem that has at times vexed me (see the following post); what to do when the mix of paint and medium ‘beads’ on the surface, i.e., when it looks like water on a duck’s back. He writes:
If the artist paints upon a stratum the pores of which, though empty of oil, have condensed so much in the process of drying that they do not absorb the oil of the over-painting; there is no sinking in, but the impasto lacks cohesion; as the oil of the new stratum does not take root in the stratum below, there is no complete adhesion, and the durability of the work will not be assured. Each time that the painter wishes to add something, he should use a re-touching varnish capable of uniting the strata and thus ensuring the homogeneity of the picture.
To the above I would add that it may be necessary to take take a rag, rap it around your finger, dab it in some oil, then some pumice powder and lightly sand the surface. You could even use some light sandpaper. He concludes with the following:
Broadly speaking, the traditional precept: load the high lights, and keep the shadows thin, will be found the safest rule, and the one most in accordance with the resources of the process. The loading of the high lights enhances their reflecting power, while the lightness of the shadows give more freedom of effect to the oil and the varnish.
I hope that helps you as much as it did me. Please feel free to leave your comments below.
—The diﬅinguish’d part of Men
With Compaſs, Pencil, sword, or Pen,
Shou’d in Life’s viſit leave their Name
In Characters, which may proclaim,
That they with Ardour ﬅrove to raiſe
At once their Art’s and Country’s Praiſe.
For those out there like myself interested in technical art history, you can download an excellent free document in PDF presented by the Getty Conservation Institute called Historical Painting Techniques, Materials and Studio Practice. This was called to my attention by Prof. Celeste Brusati at the University of Michigan, and I thank her again for doing so.
One of the essays is by Leslie A. Carlyle entitled “Beyond a Collection of Data: What We Can Learn from Documentary Sources on Artists’ Materials and Techniques”. Under the heading “Technical approaches used for creating the illusion of volume” she says:
A basic goal of all representational artists—to present an illusion of volume—is accomplished in painting through the juxtaposition of dark and light values, and of highlights and shadows. This illusion is accomplished traditionally through one of four basic techniques. A brief analysis of these techniques will illustrate the possibilities of standardizing the visual examination of paintings and the usefulness of the visual markers that can be established as a result of this approach.
These four techniques are:
Very straightforward, seemingly obvious, but I had never before given it much thought. I am always appreciative when someone can take the complex—like oil painting—and make it simple, which Ms. Carlyle does. Each take several paragraphs to explain, so refer to the actual document for the details. If nothing else, it’s a nice Rorschach test to take to find out which technique you identify with the most. Worth a look.
Annotation Summary for: Practice of Oil painting by Solomon J. Solomon
“spaces left” = negative space
The trickyness of foreshortening.
Drawing a means ro a definite end… Painting! Knowledge and accuracy!
Study the skull. Skin is of of different texture when tightly drawn versus loose parts where it is more fleshy.
Chapter II construction of the human figure.
24 inches high is the advisable size for a figure drawing…
Proportion is the first thing to consider and the most difficult to preserve.
Head = the proportion key.
First, get likeness to confirm correct proportions, then, and only then, the ears; from the ears, the neck.
Refer constantly to hand glass.
After head is satisfactory, draw neck and shoulders.
Success of a figure lies in the head to the neck to the shoulders…
One of the most difficult problems to contend with: placing the head on the shoulders.
Observe people, make mental notes of how their head attaches to their shoulders. Use the negative shapes to help you remember.
Plot armpits from shoulders, then distance from collar bone to armpits. From there you can indicate the pectoral markings.
Use head and neck as standard to plot the navel; find the triangle as it exists from pecks to the navel… This helps indicate the character and action of the torso.
Follow closely the center line from the neck to the base of the torso.
Use plumbs to establish relative positions…
In your drawings, everything must dovetail and fit…
Chapter III Construction of the head
Of great importance: the placement of the ear.
Ears: length of the nose; tops in line with the brow, lobes in line with the nostrils.
Answering shapes of the face. Example: a smile…
Copy the heads by Holbein!
Foreshortened passages always appear wider than they actually are… And how to correct this!
All solid masses have their beyond.
Chapter IV Characterisation
Reference frequently the model and drawing in a mirror!
Axiom: as we depart from the proportions of nature, we weaken the result!
Reynolds: the eye sees no more than it knows.
The delta of the face! Shapes of the head…
Make it a rule never to draw one side without the other.
Curves of the arm…
Once you have settled on proportions, paint the arm and hand in one sitting… Rarely are they posed twice alike. Van Dyck anecdote…
See that the foot plumbs well under the head… Use the plumb-line.
Images of legs…
Light and shade
The head, the feet, the knees and the lower part of the abdomen are generally richer in colour, and therefore lower in tone, than the rest of the figure.
VERY IMPORTANT: with but very few exceptions, every figure or solid object has one predominating light passage, and it stands to reason that every other light passage must be lowered in relation to it; the same applies to shadows.
YES! Definition of breadth.
“Where every one is somebody, then no one’s anybody.”. The secret? Squint!
How to manage when the light is too brilliant to be rendered by pigment?
The highlight on porcelain…
Photography is unwarrantly abused…
Ah, so how tone plays a role in its placement in space.
Do not paint the figure out of context…
Lay a sure foundation for your house, or the superstructure,which painting is, will be futile and of no avail.
Painting, Materials, Colors.
THIS IS WHAT RECENT PAINTINGS HAVE SUFFERED: You may take it for granted that no sense of freshness can be preserved after three, or at utmost four, coats od a similar tint have been laid solidly over each other on the canvas… When the grain is gone, all attempts to regain clearness are hopeless.
Steel plush mat. Erase paint and renew texture. What is this?
READ TO KINGSLEY: Oft-recurring exhibitions…
Originality is not affectation, but the frank expression of a personality.
Ground: a distinct tooth is a necessity.
Avoid toned ground… Leads to dullness. Hmmmm…?
Make sure palette is not less than 18 inches in length.
Get used to large brushes an inch or more across.
Palette knife should be trowel shaped.
Charcoal used for initial drawing.
FIND: wire plush mat as scraper!
Put cardboard between stretcher and canvas to avoid ineradicable ridges.
Colors and choice of pigments/palette
Excellent break down on various colors.
Bituminous pigments are responsible for destruction of Reynolds paintings.
Use fresh colors every day…
Do not starve your palette.
Luminosity is the rarest quality to attain and one of the finest.
Scrape up the paints on your palette to use as greys…
Mix some masses of light, half-tone, shadow to expedite the work.
Paint quantities indicated by size of circles…
Canvas size: 24 x 20 inches… Rarely use a canvas smaller than this.
If your painting is too brilliantly lighted, the image will suffer….
Bingo! After drawing with charcoal, blow off all but the faintest indication of the line, then paint over with a sable brush with raw umber.
Starting the monochrome copy: raw umber and white; mix 3 tones.
The actual painting stage really only begins when you paint into paint!
Let breadth and simplicity be you watchwords.
Textures in monochrome…read and reread.
Chapter X Still life in Color: learning alla prima.. Direct painting… Though “serious work” should be prepped in monochrome.
Charcoal drawing, blow away unnecessary blackness, clean with bread, paint in background first.
Mix middle tones, matching colors as you would silks or wools, and cover the rest of the canvas. Then paint shadows, then highlights, then broken passages. Before adding a different color over another, remove precious color with a palette knife.
Put painting next to still life, walk back as far as possible, compare with a hand-glass.
Be content only when the apples loom eatable.
In other words, see that the high lights are exactly their right tone, and not too light, and that all other lights and light masses are subordinate to what happens to be the highest light or light passages.
The part must always be subordinate to the whole.
If at the end of the day it is not satisfactory, scrape it away with a palette knife.
Paint with greater solidity; with less oil.
I ought perhaps to tell you that, except for the backgroun and shadows, you might paint all the more solid light passages without medium, if you wish to complete your study at one sitting.
Chapter XI: silver and china in color
Keep your color pure. Lay in the whole as before directed (the still life… Do this over the verdaccio underpainting)
You will get into messes often enough, and you must learn how to get out of them.
Begin with the object stronger in light and shade to set the key.
Chapter XIi Hints on Arrangements, Solecisms in Composition.
Study particularly the placing of heads, half and full length portraits and figures, and the main structural lines and color masses of decorative designs.
Placement of a head on a 24 x 20 inch page.
EXCELLENT! All pictures should be decorative… And there should be just accident enough in their arrangement fr them not to appear obviously arranged.
Creation of Adam and the Raising of the Brazen Serpent.
Chapter XIII painting from life in monochrome.
The sense of solidity and subtle modeling are due to the relation of tones, it is well to cultivate the habit of reducing every part and every color to it’s equivalent tone value.
Study the lighting of heads by Velazquez and van Dyck… A reproduction on your easel above the canvas might well seve as your guide… Gia’ fatto! 😉
Use brush to measure, paint slightly smaller than life.
Draw and then shade with charcoal, use q dry brush to model. From time to time put the drawing as close as possible, go back as far as possible and compare with a mirror.
Make all corrections in charcoal… Which resists little to a brush and none to bread!
Much correcting in paint is fatal to lucidity.
Set palette with white and raw umber.
The pure color of raw umber should be deep enough for the initial darks…
It is food practice to make the best use of restricted materials.
On managing your edges!
The planes of Velazquez…
Mark the quality of the skin in the forehead and bridge of the nose and the contrasted pulpiness where flesh is free of bone.
Check flesh values in relation to white…
Be careful in modeling round the eyes to preserve the globular feeling beneath the lids and to realize something of the liquid quality of the eyes themselves.
If there is any objectionable hardness or thinness, soften with a large dry brush.
Look to it that map of light and shade be correct. If necessary, use a penknife to scrape away the dark.
If a part dries dead; breath on it, then wipe off with a rag.
Cover the whole with wet paint?
It’s the recovering with wet paint that confuses me… With the same color?
More to learn from honest failure than mild success.
Chapter XIV Coloring a monochrome.
Coloring a monochrome means preparing the monochrome several tones lighter than nature, as if a semi-transparent paper were laid over a normal tonal study.
Then, when dry: paint the highest lights with Strf white; the shadows with Indian red and ivory black; the Greys and halftones with all colors mentioned + cobalt and a little oxide of chromium when needed… Covering the whole with a new skin of paint.
Begin with fluid mixture of middle tone, always higher in tone than nature, yet relatively just.
When the secon stage is dry, glaze in the yellow and red tones.
Sir Joshua Reynolds Painting method…
Reynolds obviously used his final colors with reference to the effect that was beneath them.
With the idea before him of a subsequent fuller coloring to be superimposed over a higher key in order to reduce the whole to the appropriate tone of nature.
Pure glazing may lower overmuch; add a little white with warm colors to obviate the loss of brilliancy.
Experience with this, as with all things, is a necessity.
Chapter XV Painting direct from life.
The palette for painting from life… two whites, yellow ochre, light red?, vermilion, rose madder, cobalt, emerald, oxide of chromium, raw and burnt umber and ivory black.
Star with Turp so the color dries dead and leaves the paint slightly absorbent… And that way, subsequent paintings with oil or varnish are less apt to shine unduly.
Never putdown two touches where one would suffice!
Use brushes that are awkwardly large; practice will enable you to manipulate them. They will sweep up the unnecessary detail.
Above all, assure a homogeneous skin… And look at heads by Velazquez!
Comparison of prepared and direct method…
A rich impasto, variety of texture, the beauty of underlying grey tones, a lasting luminosity, a sense oof oneness, are the distinguishing characteristics of the “monochrome.”. Vitality and spontaneity are perhaps more closely associated with direct painting.
Titian is said to have warmed his flesh with asphaltum, which is of a golden hue when applied thinly.
The grey tones are the severest test of a colorist’s capacity.
The greatest advantage of monochrome is this: if the glaze applied is not the desired hue, the glaze may be removed while leaving the underpainting in tact.
Further, if necessary to paint over, the white and light greys can only enhance the overpainting.
It is given to few to achieve a result which implies swiftness, dexterity, sureness, and just observation of color, tone and character in every touch.
Part II. Methods of the Masters
Chapter I methods of the masters.
FIND: book recs from Solomon… Mr. Hamerton’s. “Graphic Arts,” Eastlake, Mrs. Merrifield’s “Ancient Practice of Painting.”
A visit to the National Gallery… It is a sign!
Exceptional! A discussion on technical excellences… Have no counterpart in any other medium of thought.
Bronzino: Venus, Cupid, Folly, Time.
Chapter II Italian Schools
“”Luminosity” is the supreme test of the painter’s craft.
There is no caprice in Nature’s apparent favoritism.
Over-modeling is inimical to brilliancy and freshness.
Andrea del Sarto
Guido Reni – Grey Ground
Chapter III The School of Titian
Flesh initially painted with a color similar to the terra rossa ground, and the flesh was done very solidly…
The rich glazes were applied with fingers and thumb, and finally the whole was gilded either with a golden varnish or with asphaltum
Most notable achievement: the underlying grey.
Veronese on shadows and “passing clouds.” the point: invent your own shadows to move the eye and manipulate the composition.
Titian was the first to break up landscape masses with accidental light and shadow.
Madders glazed over a white ground with touches of Naples yellow like golden threads.
When oil and not varnish is used the glaze may evaporate.
Never trust in a glazing where a partial stumble is not added.
Mrs. Merrifield Titian anecdote: removal of glass frame… The glaze had evaporated and stuck to the glass!
Chapter IV the Italian school continued.
FIND: artist Paris Bordone, portrait of a lady.
Chapter V The Flemish School
Quote from Rubens on keeping white out of shadows and keeping color pure in the light.
Venus and Mars: note the warm brown shadows, broken touches of light and then the liquid melting of the scumble over the warmer ground. Liquid opalescence.
Van Dyck: witness the same scumble on the cheek of “van der geest”
Van Dyck portrait of van der geest
How best to copy this painting… Step 1. Brown grisaille; 2. Load light areas with stiff white and varnish medium; 3. Paint thinly the color of the whole, glazing the mouth and separately drawing some of the hair.
Look for grisaille study of van Dyck entitled Ronaldo and armida.
Chapter VI The Dutch School.
Rembrandt: portrait of an old lady
The woman bathing…
Note the rich unctuous properties have never been so thoroughly exploited.
Christ before pilate gives a clue to the first laying in…
An, so we are back to the woman bathing…
Here he explains how to paint the woman bathing: grey and white with loaded brush paint the shoulders and breasts, the chemise with a very liquid white added on a Greer ground with some touches of a palette knife; then shadows fairly transparent. IS HE RIGHT?
Ever keep the big things in view. Simplicity is the greatest virtue and the last achieved in any art.
Criticism of Rembrandt’s looseness; his reply, “I’m a painter, not a dyer.”
Luscious silver grey of the underground!
When wisely and discreetly left, the deposits of a real, not assumed enthusiasm, fired spontaneously in the warmth of production– then and then only, like the moving passion of the orator, they move us to a real admiration.
The Spanish School: Velazquez!
In every sense a realist, he stated the large facts with the broadest touch.
Unerring draughtsmanship and a just appreciation of value…
Compare early Philip to the Admiral
pLog! This is it: “The Admiral is bathed in air. The solidifying force of finely contrasted values and subtle colour-contrasts is now the master’s secret, which henceforth is to be a model throughout the generations. He now knows that a living illusion is not enhanced by rigid draperies accentuated equally throughout, but that movement is imparted by free handling, that real texture of surfaces was more perfectly suggested by color and tone-relations than by minute imitation of the passages detached from the general envelopment.” Again, the word “envelope.” isn’t that also I. The Carolus-Duran document?
The Admiral is a masterpiece of construction, bigness and tonal relief…
The figure of the Venus is first prepared in white…
Venus figure prepared in white, Indian Red and Black.
The small Philip IV is one of our treasures and should be copied.
WHite and red ground?
Pink greys suggest Indian red in the ground and in the last painting.
One of the finest examples of big yet subtle modeling: Vealazquez’s dwarf!
The finest example of the French school is Watteau.
Wax, medium and cracking. Joshua Reynolds: all good pictures crack.
There is always danger of pictures suffering that are done with a thick paste of color entirely concealing the grain of the canvas.
Gilded vs. silvery
Reynolds: example of the essential vs. non-essential.
To be a painter, he must first be a sound craftsman.
Later on you may attempt Van Dyck or Velazquez’s Phillip IV…!
Aids to Composition.
You may desire to make natural effects your chief aim, and if their lies your strength, by all means do; but do not at the same time forget to make the decorative.
Dipping draperies in a mixture of clay and water so they hold their form…
Solomon’s secret: covering a mill board with aspinall’s enamel and then, after it dries, cover with ivory black water color… Then pull out the light…!
Analysis of Titian Composition.
Titian analysis continued…
…make the search for the beautiful in all things your real pilgrimage through life.
Time invariably sobers the spirit that ostentatiously dissociates itself from the powers that were.
Let this thought make you tolerant.
PADASOR: know before hand the your fancy of today will give place to a new one tomorrow…
Page 278: Dutch school continued… Fran’s Hals
Page 309: practice of oil painting Solomon Page 309
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Annotation Summary for: velasquez-RAM-stevenson
List of illustrations
The true effect of art is slow.
The energy and eloquence of a Ruskin and the sympathetic comprehension of a whistler or Carolus-Duran are needed for Madrid.
Delacroix; complaints of those who see beauty only in line.
Genius = a compound of original seeing, intellectual courage and some gift of expression.
… That you may not think at all,or act for yourself, is to add the very zest of piracy to experiment in life and originality in thought… A chest with a false bottom… The audacity of private thought.
Artist and King grew old together.
WHAT he painted concerned him less than HOW he painted.
YES! Transformation from hard realism to suavity of impressional beauty.?. Unrelaxing criticism of beauty distinguishes the highest order of artist alone.
Does this refer to me?…
Carl justi’s book… I have this, right?
One is apt to see too readily in a canvas what one reads in a book.
Periods of his life and work
V married his daughter Francisca to his pupil, J.B. Del Mazo… As V himself married Pacheco’s daughter.
V second trip to Rome, meets: Rosa, Bernini, Algardi, Poussin, paints Innocent X.
Sensitiveness to form and an interest in solid and direct painting.
Learned to model with surprising justness b ut for a long time he continued to treat a head in a group as he would if he saw it alone. Only slowly slowly he learnt the impression of a whole scene as the true motif of a picture.
Comparison of early Velazquez with the Venetians: he lacks unity of aspect. That aspect may have been more remote in it’s relation to nature, but it was certainly ampler and more decoratively beautiful.
V’s second period after his first trip to Italy brought a decorative character to his art.
Exceptional analysis: V relaxed his naturalism (meaning what, exactly?); not that he slackened his grip upon form, but he seems to have accepted in Italy the necessity for professional picture-making. His colors became a shade more positive or less bathed in light, and his unity to some extent an adopted decorative convention.
His third period starts with Innocent X.
Chapter III Comparison of the three stages of Velazquez
The traditional cult of beauty
“Surrender” follows the lead of his favorite Venetian masters.
Excellent analysis of Surrender: V combines decorative splendor and historical clearness with the subtle mysteries of real tone and the impressionistic unity that lift truth into poetry.
No subject in itself can make or mar art: subject is indifferent except for it’s favorable or unfavorable effect on the artist.
Simply genius: subject in painting differs from subject in literature…
Yes!!! Purpose determines expression, not subject! This IS IT.
Clumsy drawing. Another good description of B and even Cy.
Tricks of the metier.
Unequalled sensitiveness of this man’s eyesight.
Formal unity vs. Impressional unity. Could this be the same as pictorial unity and illusional unity? Bacchus vs. Surrender.
The unity of work of art should be organic and pervasive, like the blood in a man’s veins, which is carried down to his very toes.
BRILLIANT! Force in art is an affair of relation… Strong points in a picture kill each other.
Technique is the language of the eye.
Chapter IV the dignity of technique
Abstract and speculative vs. Concrete and sensuous.
Sentiment is not imagination; spirituality is not artistic feeling.
We are all spirits; it is not in spirituality that theai ter differs from us, but in that sensitive perception of visible character which enables him to imagine a picture all of a piece, all tending to express the same sentiment, all instinct and alive with feeling.
Pure art = music… Every shade of complicated emotion in a symphony by Beethoven depends entirely upon technique-that is to say, upon the relations established amongst notes which are by themselves empty of all significance.
None pursue the beauties intrinsic to their medium (until the 20th century)… All are double stars linked like Algol to a dark companion.
Record impression and decorate.
An artist must study how the eye takes in nature, and how it takes pleasure in a canvas; and he must learn to reconcile these two ways of seeing when they disagree, as sometimes may.
… No to e so bright that a brighter can’t make it dark.
An artist must be master of… Harmony, contrast, and gradation; but he must learn to obey e “laws of decorative effect.”
Modus vivendi must be found between the imitative and the decorative… And this compact may be called the convention of the art of painting.
Yes! To object to the conventionality of art is to believe in absolute realism, which, if possible, would be a science not an art. Continue…
Drawing a line on canvas commits you to art…
Different readings of the convention = variations: ideal form vs. Real form; local color or atmospheric, detail or general aspect.
Technique as important to an art as the body to man; both act for two hidden questionable partners, sentiment and soul.
Chapter V Composition of V
Draw by the eye = one thing is not more difficult than another.
V was not an embroiderer of given spaces but a trimmer of spaces to fit given impressions.
The vertical direction of las meninas…
Analysis of Veronese, marriage at Cana…
The surrounding must serve the figure…
Yet another definition for “illustration”…. And even then they knew a catalog could make a painting look better than it actually is.
Old master (renaissance) paintings built up by blocks of color.
The dignity, the quality, the sense of artistry in the presentation of a thing depends very much upon it’s proportion to surroundings.
It might be worth someone’s time to inquire into the sewing together of canvases…
V and Whistler: Truth is the introducer that bids these two shake hands over several centuries.
Hardness, confusion, and spottiness can be corrected only by a noble decorative ideal.
The art stowed away in las meninas…
PADASOR: the rule was and still is that every space must co-operate in the effect, but not necessarily by lines, agitated colours and defined forms… Top of las meninas as grand as the alps.
…an art that fits the eye. PLOG: My art is a testament to the pleasure of seeing… No, the intimacy of looking at another and knowing that you are looking.
Critique of Raphael’s Transfiguration.
Titian “Assumption” = “too unmysterious” ? Interesting! Cover the top half to suggest the mystery!
Explosion of color demands the sacrifice of tone… ?
YES! V uses the expression of space as well as expression of form to give character to his picture.
Impressionistic style vs. Realistic style…
V relied little on parallelism of line or whirlpools of curves leading the eye to the center…
… To a conventional society a realistic representation of human passions appears madness.
Two reasons why no one can lay down the law with assurance:
PADASOR: how V paints a face… Also gradations of tone to create intimacy… Ver nice idea!
Holbein vs. V. “while a painted Holbein differs very little in method and aim from a holbein drawing on paper, a picture by velazquez belongs altogether to another branch of art. Drawing vs. Painting. Mine. Barnes was right. Find fluidity I have in my drawing.
V in his later work not guilty of sub-compositions.
A study of Las meninas in England?
Some have it that V was working from a mirror…
Spinners was painted after Las Meninas…
FIND: Avenue of the Queen by V. Recalls Corot and Whistler, though neither ever saw it.
Also, Fountain of the Tritons…
Figures out of scale; Justi thinks they were added by Mazo.
V’s landscapes owe in part to a hazard of nature and to an accident of the way he looks at nature.
Of many qualities possible to painting and useful in composition, proportion is at once the most enduring in it’s effect, and the most unobtrusive in its compulsion to the eye.
A work of art should charm us both when we examine it and when we dream over it half-consciously.
Extraordinary! Proportion, like a fine day, puts us into a pleasurable frame of mind without conscious effort on our part…
… V’s art is less evident, less exciting at first, and less fatiguing afterwards. The more you know his work the more you see in it, and what appeared the most wonderful effort of artless realism becomes the most consummate finesse of art.
It is impossible to discriminate between good and bad color with scientific certainty.
Extravagant Venetian color vs. Natural poetry and sober dignity of a fine Velazquez.
Yes! … As this is so, I need scarcely apologize for speaking of my own feelings; art is meaningless without personality and its action can only be studied inits effect upon oneself.
Breda: unnaturally bright and spotty coloring.
THIS IS WHAT I THINK ABOUT TITIAN’S ARIADNE: To show strong color thus governed by the tone of the ensemble is not the same thing as to play with strong color in an artificial scheme of decorative harmonies, and you may count on your fingers the men who have done it with success.
All art is a convention… Use of color does not treat the mystery of real lighting with poetic insight.
There must be some who feel with me that many bright colors of extreme chromatic difference confound the perception of tone, and give the picture an air of insincerity, shallow pomp, and decorative flashiness. The solemn mystery of nature is lost for the sake of a costumier’s taste for courtly splendor.
Venetian art ( I.e. Use of color) is a triumph of artifice, not a great victory of the emotions.
To some, V appears to be a decorator with an unaccountable taste for certain cold harmonies of a restrained kind… Black and grey.
To the unthinking, color is absolute.
When we call a single color beautiful or ugly we unconsciously compare it with the general hue of nature as a background. Such is the power of relations within a key.
A good way of comparing realism to Impressionism.
Interesting: three categories: decorative, realistic, impressionist.
… No traces of glazing or saucing… V’s pictures are among the few that have not gained with time.
The general principle that unites the colors in hs late pictures is not a feeling for decorative fitness (which governed his middle period) nor is it a love of dark hues as seen in Ribera.
The principle instead revolves around a broader and more imaginative outlook upon the values of color as they are affected by juxtaposition, by atmospheric conditions and, above all, by their inclination to the source of light.
A change of plane on which a color lies tends to make it not only lighter or darker, but also changes it’s hue.
Analysis of Moenippus…
V flushes blacks with a greenish light… Like in the background in his crucified Christ.
Analysis of Vulcan: the rest of the picture consists of originally Gregory colors, drowned in brown vehicle.
Angel in christ at pillar is same as Apollo in Vulcan.
The Spinners: where real atmosphere plays upon the widest range of color.
Chapter VII His Modeling and Brushwork
Yes! What is the convention? Which is to say, what is the technique… “modeling is the basis of the art of painting, the master-trick of the craft, since it is imposed upon the painter by the very convention which compels him to express depths of space and inclinations of surface by shades of color laid on one plane.”
Impressionists are the descendants of the perspectivists; they fight not to show how things are but how they seem.
V passed from piecemeal modeling to impressionistic modeling.
Yes! V expressed form with the sorcery of truth… Vs. arbitrary modeling.
V taught himself not to over-model… Read this more carefully.
In a difficult passage of naturalistic modeling, painters are apt to take refuge in line, which contradict and destroy the consistency and mystery of revelation by true light.
Proportion, tone and the ensemble of the whole! Read from “it is said that in France…” to end of paragraph.
The ensemble of a scene hypnotized and fascinates an impressionist as if it were a real, personal, and indivisible entity and not a mere sum of small quantities.
Analysis of V’s Crucifiction
Handling is always discreet… Does not seek an effect of bravura dexterity. (Not sure I agree.)
V inclines to brush in the obvious direction… In some cases he smudges so subtly as to convey no sense of direct handling. The limb or object treated seems to grow mysteriously out of dusky depths and to be shaped by real light.
One cannot easily fathom the depth of his insight nor weary of his endless variety.
Notes on some pictures
Martinez montanes reminds one of Carolus Duran.
Yes! Aesop’s head supports the legend of “swaggering dexterity.”
Moenippus: accessories all bathed in liquid depths of air.
Analysis of las meninas…
FIND: J. B. Del Mazo
PADASOR: In all the best canvases of V, you will find the accessories vitalized by just degrees of force instead of being killed by an equal realization all over the canvas.
V’s style changed according to the aspect of each picture and not by preconceived principles.
PADASOR No lines are wanted to bring out the shapes; the painter’s science of values is all sufficient.
Chapter IX His relation to older art.
V taught himself to picture the impression made by any sight upon his brain.
… All true art originates in the personal predilections of an individual mind, and in personal sensitiveness to nature.
V was one who tampered the least with the integrity of his impression of the world.Every one of his pictures was a fresh effort, less at finding a new and striking subject than St realizing more absolutely a way of seeing things in general that was personal to him.
Scotch painter, John Lavery, “six months of copying Vwas not sufficient.
It is in the last dozen years of his life that V makes the most marvelous use of paint.
… You seem to be behind his eye…
In a word, his work is resembles the fine writing in which style is so docile a servant of matter, that it never draws attention to itself; you read as you might eat a meal in the Arabian Nights, served by invisible hands.
PADASOR Not nature, but man’s impression of nature should be complete and definite… In the hands of V these accomplishments never became mechanical, never degenerated from inspired seeing to trained labor.
PADASOR Need we fear to advance towards truth and accuracy, when he who adventures farthest seems to encourage us by the grandeur and surpassing sentiment that rewarded his devotion to the metier (craft)?
V’s influences: Caravaggio, Greco, Ribera, Sanchez Coello, Titian and Tintoretto.
V praised Titian’s execution and Tintoretto’s rendering of light and the just depth of space. (source? How do we know this?)… Here!…
Great anecdote of V talking about the Italians…
PADASOR … We could not wish artists otherwise; were they tepid to the beauties they see in the world, they could arouse in us but a feeble response to their works. Art without personal prejudice…
FIND: “Mary Tudor” by Antonio More
The Dutch, in their day, preferred Van der Helst to Rembrandt… It was in the cause of beauty that these great artists sacrificed the accurate map of the features that pleases family friends and the provision of hard accessories that ministers to family pride.
A painter may not with impunity take the free generous style of Titian and Rembrandt and correct it with a dose of patience and accuracy of tamer spirits. Grandeur and carefulness will usually quarrel like a medicine of I’ll-mixed ingredients in a patient’s stomach.
For what great thing can be done in art with only patience, method, and accuracy of eye? (And yet that is the spring board!)
Writers of V: Pacheco, Palomino, Sir W. Stirling Maxwell, Richard Ford, T. Thore’, Carl Justi…
A “realism of general aspect” that approaches the “convincing truth” of V
ECCO! Carolus-Duran: Duran set himself to teach art less on the venerable principle of outline than on a method adapted to his own fashion of looking at nature–by masses and constructive planes.
According to Duran, the whole art of expressing form should progress together and should consist in expressing it, as we see it, by light.
Duran regarded drawing as the art of placing things rightly in depth as well as in length and breadth; and for this purpose he would call attention to various aspects of form–the intersection and prolongation of imaginary lines, the shape of inclosed spaces, the interior contents of masses, the inclination of planes to light and the expression or characteristic tendency of any visible markings.
pLog: as in Greece, so in later Europe, it was portraiture that keptvart sincere and vital.
Analysis of Leonardo’s chiaroscuro, which he “describes too often consisting of an arbitrary passage from dark to light by the use of two or three stock tones brushed together.”
His name (V) was for ever in the mouth of Duran.
… The influence of Corot at the time was great.. I have heard Duran say, “when you go into the fields you will not see Corot; paint what you see.”
Reference to “Manual of Oil Painting” by John Collier!
When truth of impression became the governing ideal, V became the prophet of the new school.
Carolus-Duran teaching method: planes made with big brush strokes with the proper flesh tone. No preparation in color or monochrome, but the face must be laid in directly.
Duran’s studio described in the Nineteenth Century… You have this.
One point to make on flesh tones…!
Read this again…
Corot and Millet
FIND: the painter Henner.
pLog: The test if a new thing is not utility, which may appear at any moment… The test is the kind and amount of human feeling and intellect put into the work. Could any fool do it?
The modern idealist whose whole cause seems to be hatred of matter, of the truth, of the visible, of the real and a consequent craving for the spiritual, the non-material.
Interesting… Similar to what I wrote as my recent thesis…
EXCELLENT: The true artist’s thought is of his material, of its beauties, of its limitations, of its propriety to the task proposed. He has to achieve beauty, but under conditions–of fact, of decoration, of a medium.
It was not only his immediate subjects but the whole art of seeing that V dignified in his paintings.
Seeing like a child…
The modern painter should concern himself with what seems and not what is… Toy horses
…vulgarity of the cheap method which exaggerates outlines, and replaces tone and gradation by false explanatory definition.
Silly lines in portraits…
More on las meninas…
Leonardo… And painting on a plane of glass.
The problems of modeling, widths, depths, and fulness of interest are to be solved by artistic feeling!
Analysis of the meanings of Impressionism and realism…
The difference between a realist and impressionist…
Until every part of the picture has been observed in the subservience of the impression of the whole, completeness can never be even begun.
Shadows that fill with color when looked at alone…
The tricks that confound when trying to finish a picture…
YES, Hats that block the sunset… And change the color of the ground.
They expected you to begin a thing by finishing.
Marked up using iAnnotate on my iPad
Page 10: Cover
Page 15: Interesting commentary on Cubism… Share with Kingsley
Page 16: Cubism is “decorative rhythm”
Page 16: Fascinating observation on the relationship between form and color and simplification and distortion.
Page 17: On color and it’s connection to shadows and light…
Page 18: Chiaroscuro… Out of favor except for Rembrandt. And da Vinci.
Page 19: Notes on the art of Rembrandt by same author?
Page 19: If we then wish to paint for eternity…
Page 19: Ruskin maxim: let your white be precious and your black be conspicuous.
Page 19: Find this book: notes on Rembrandt.
Page 20: Brown shadows= the royal road to the facile picturesque.
Page 22: Toc
Page 26: Fault lies with those who have led Men’s thoughts away from the practical side to dream over enticing abstract terms such as Truth and Beauty.
Page 26: Find Walter Pater’s essay the school of Giogione.
Page 27: Ruskin on Reynolds.
Page 27: Considerations on turning the notion of ideal beauty to practical account…
Page 28: Men who achieve lasting fame break from academic precepts.
Page 29: The fault in pursuit of ideal beauty? Insipidity.
Page 29: The problem with Roman copies of Greek originals…
Page 30: Imitation often equals “coarseness, stiffness, emptiness… Eclectic generalization.”
Page 31: “Greatness is departure from a canon”… But doesn’t the canon provide the springboard?
Page 32: “To resemble another artist or school of artists is a sign of inferiority.”
Page 32: “genius is different from all previous standards; while close correspondence with any of these standards, howerpver immediately pleasing it may appear, will be a certain proof of mediocrity.”
Page 33: “if one half of the energy which artists have devoted during the last one hundred years to abusing and discrediting their fellows had been spent ob creative work…”
Page 34: “beauty and Truth have led to disastrous anarchy…Classics and Romantics, Realists and Idealists…”
Page 34: “Technical traditions and canons of beauty are valuable only as a starting point.”
Page 35: “the man who never goes beyond the tradition of his age can never be more than a sound craftsman… For Genius, tradition is always a base from which a further advance may be safely made.”
Page 36: “The true logical foundation of the Fine Arts is inextricably connected with their concrete function, materials and processes; and no abstract philosophizing which has neglected these essential factors, has produced any fruit but fine words, conflicting judgements and bad painting.”
Page 40: Chapter 1
the Value of Emotion
Page 40: “Expression without string feeling, enthusiasm, emotion, is not art.
Page 40: Definition of painting: “personal experience emphasized by emotion in flat decoration.”
Page 41: Double meaning of “experience”…
Page 42: A dis to Bouguereau!
Page 42: Learning the technique from a master vs. Learning Not to see like them; the greater the master the more abject the submission of the followers.
Page 43: This definitely happened to the followers of Caravaggio…
Page 46: The importance of a good frame.
Page 46: Find: Mr. A. Clutton Brock, The Burlington Magazine, Oct. 1907, vol. xii pp. 23-26… The emotional base of painting.
Page 47: “Emotion is the keystone of poetry… And painting.” interesting analysis of poetry compared to science and philosophy in previous paragraphs.
Page 48: “only a dunce or a pedant would sit down in cold blood to write an epic. Yet thousands of painters seem to sit down in cold blood and expect to paint good pictures.”
Page 48: Working without emotion…”we set ourselves in fact to rivaling the camera, and enter upon that prosaic contest with a heavy handicap against us.”
Page 48: Seize “on the facts of the subject that are essential to pictorial expression an reject all others.”
Page 48: The devices of the painter’s art: rhythm of line, spacing and disposition of masses, light and shade, color, handling of the paint… In pursuit of harmony.”
Page 49: “perfect fusion of visual idea and professional experience = great painting.”
Page 50: “the artist in short runs into the most peril the moment he has nothing to struggle against. That is the real trouble of those who practice art with success. The stimulus to do battle for their convictions is removed, and their work, which should be a constant effort to conquer adverse circumstances, becomes an easy routine.”
Page 50: “yet emotion by itself is worthless…”
Page 51: Read this to my drawing class… Again, The Karate Kid Method.
Page 52: “… Images formed in the mind’s eye…” As Odd said, “you must see it in your mind.”
Page 53: “the painter’s… First business is simply and solely to make a beautiful picture… Every addition which is not sn addition to it external beauty is an excrescence.”
Page 54: For the author, Rembrandt bests Raphael, Van Dyck and Rubens.
Page 55: Chapter 2: The value of Theory
Page 55: The latter of these two alternatives is commonly the more unpopular.
Page 56: “…only to become slaves to a fraction of such a science.” This guy is spot on.
Page 57: Reynold’s discourses will ever be the enthusiastic student’s favorite book.”
Page 57: Reynold’s explanation of genius.
Page 59: “in a well-known passage, leonardo points out hoe, by constant practice, the eye may be trained to measure spaces accurately.” Find this passage.
Page 60: Rules and principles are not an end in themselves, but a means to an end.
Page 60: Sometimes rules become regarded as a substitute for invention… Till the artist becomes a hack…possessing considerable facility of hand but nothing else.
Page 61: Find: Burnet’s “Treatise on painting”… The most complete compendium in English of the traditional practices of the old masters.
Page 62: Chapter 3 Invention and Nature
Page 62: Rubensvs. V in inventive quality.
Page 63: “toy landscapes” this is what Odd did.
Page 63: A picture must “retain it’s hold on the minds of men.”
Page 63: The dangers of painting “always with the model before us.”
Page 64: MEMORY “How to pick our way between two extremes?… I think we shall be wise if we adopt the system upon which all great creative artists have worked… To paint our pictures from memory”…!
Page 65: Composition: division of space, arrangement and organization of elements.
“…essential to fix the general disposition of lines and masses.”. Do this with quick sketches.
Page 66: Bingo! And once again, Odd! “the mere fact of working from a slight sketch keeps the mind on the qui vive and the memory active, while the absence of nature leaves the intellect free to select just those elements and no others which have pictorial significance.
Page 67: “when we come to paint our picture we shall have the rough sketch to inspire us and the finished studies to help us where our memory fails. Executed with these aids our work should lack neither spirit nor solidity and we can comfort ourselves with the thought that we are working on the system which makes the best possible use of such brains as we possess.”
Page 68: Chapter 4 pictorial conditions and pictorial emphasis
Page 69: The Four Qualities: Unity, Vitality, Infinity, Repose.
Page 70: Velazquez: cool deliberate science
Page 71: Infinity = timelessness?
Page 71: Sargent, for want of Infinity, is among the Brilliant but not the Supreme
Page 72: Excellent summary of the Four Qualities: if Unity then may be said to give a painting coherent structure, vitality to inspire it with the breath of life, Infinity to redeem it from shallowness, repose may be said to endow it with good manners.”
Page 72: “new wine of portraiture put into the old bottles of Velazquez.”
Page 72: “Design is dependent upon subject matter.”
Page 73: Pictorial design = “emphasis subject to pictorial condition.”
Page 74: Condition and Emphasis Chart!
Page 75: Formal Analysis!
Page 75: The need for a “systematic method of inquiry” to “localize faults” and “discover the appropriate remedies.”
Page 75: Illustration or Picture? Major Rhythm Makes the difference.
Page 76: Chapter 5 Emphasis of Symbol
Page 77: “symbols… subject to limitation of material and the purpose of view.”
Page 77: “‘truth to nature’ has been themotto in all periods of art”
Page 78: Reynolds: “The business of a great painter is to produce a great picture, and he must not allow himself to be cajoled by specious arguments out of his materials”
Page 78: “Pictorial symbols must have a relation to nature and art.” goldsmith / flower example is a good one
Page 78: “if we neglect the relation to nature our work will be shallow, mannered, or absurd; if we neglect the relation to art it will be bad painting”
Page 79: Unity of Symbols: Gainsborough landscape and figure, both loose suggestive touch.
Page 80: Puvis de Chavannes, Blake, Daumier… Good example of drawings of figures in landscape.
Page 80: If drawing = verisimilitude, so too must color.
Page 82: Yes! This is the journey: to go from “a rapid sketch in pen and ink or some emphatic medium” to “a powerful finished picture.”
Page 82: 3 reasons why sketches have vigor…
Page 83: Misled by “sincerity” and “truth”… The “swift” and “fluent” is lost.
Page 84: “is not the faculty of wise selection a greater faculty than that of undiscriminating imitation?”
Page 84: “imitation is for the student… Instinctive separation fo the pictorial from the non-pictorial is the attribute of the master.”
Page 84: *** The Rock Example!
Page 85: Silverpoint example…
Page 86: “Loss of emphasis results in a dull drawing, however capably done.”
Page 87: Every medium dictates it’s own essentials and has it’s own set of pictorial symbols.
Page 87: “All painting which in any degree relies for it’s attractiveness upon imitation of texture is inconsiderable; yet, since texture is a thing which the veriest ignoramus can recognize when imitated in paint, the pictures which make it prominent are usually sure to be praised by the multitude for the moment.”
Page 88: There is no fixed rule as to essentials. They vary infinitely with the subject and the materials, and all great painting is a constant process of discovery and invention: discuvery of the essentials of the matter in hand, and invention of the pictorial symbols best adapted to represent them in the chosen medium.”
Page 89: This is why I like bug hero’s sketches better than finished works.
Page 90: Rembrandt’s best etchings…
Page 90: This is it: “lastly, the perfect pictorial symbol will suggest life and vigor by the seeming ease and swiftness of execution.” Seeming the key word. This is Velazquez! Share with painting class.
Page 90: Rubens, Gainsborough, Sargent…
Page 90: “… Sargent’s power is aped without a tithe of his power and knowledge…”
Page 91: Find book of Gainsborough drawings…
Page 92: Critique of pointillism…
Page 92: “Every complexity which diminishes the clearness of the symbol we employ to represent them, every moment that we linger over the strokes we apply to our canvas, must in some degree, diminish the vigor of the result we obtain.”
Page 93: A painting must catch “the attention for the moment by its vigor” but must also “hold and enchant the attention by it subtlety.”
Page 93: …”a Rembrandt or a Claude is pregnant with mystery…”
Page 95: Symbols and Repose: “In the matter of tone for example we must beware of excess of contrast, and in making a forcible study with very black chalk we shall achieve a more harmonious result by towering on a toned paper than by using one which is dead white.”
Page 96: Reconciling “chaos” with “repose”: “Thus, however much we may wish to emphasize the vitality of a rolling plain, of a chaos of tumbled mountains, or of an angry sea, there must ever, in the midst of all this tempestuous movement, be felt the real stability of the Earth, the steadfastness of the mountains, or the vast immobile build of the sea, upon which the largest waves that ever swelled are no more than mere momentary froth.”
Page 97: Chapter 6 Emphasis of Plan
Page 97: Quote for PADASOR: “A well planned work with no particular felicity of execution will more than hold its own against the most brilliant feat of brushwork that is based upon a poor design.”
Page 97: “…that is to say we must decide quite finally what is the principal thing we wish to express. If we hesitate, even for a moment, between two rival centers of interest, we shall be wise to lay our design aside until reflection has settled which of them can best be subordinated to the other.”
Page 98: Pictorial condition of Unity with regard to Plan
Page 98: “Here we arrive at the principal of triangular or pyramidal composition; which, however disguised, is the secret of almost all stable and compact pictorial designs. In a portrait the head forms a natural apex to the arms and body.” Delfina! Just worked on today.
Page 99: Triangle to Pyramid to Quadilateral to Diamond to Oval.
Page 100: Giorgione’s Fete Champetre in the Louvre… moves the eye away from the pyramid composition.
Page 100: Titian’s Sacred and Profane… two figures and the sarcophagus from a pyramid whose apex we cannot see.
Page 101: II Vitality in Plan
Page 102: “if we can balance the significant lines by a repetition or echo, their emphasis will be enhanced and the rhythmic quality of the design much improved.”
Page 104: Rhythm and it’s connection to vitality and repose.
Page 105: Find: Hogarth, “the analysis of beauty.”
Page 105: Canons on art are points of departures… Maps, perhaps? Once again, it is the journey. Odd, “you must see it.”. That is the vision of what those things might be like that you will discover… Then there is the journey, and the real discovery.
Page 105: Greek sculptors and their canons…
Page 106: Della Francesca baptism
Page 106: Botticelli’s Nativity
Page 107: Blake’s Morning Stars
Page 107: Titian’s Bacchus
Page 107: Find: Romney’s “Lady Hamilton with a Goat.”
Page 108: III Infinity and Plan
Page 108: Yes!!! “painters are but novices in their craft who compose pictures of which the secret can be exhausted at once.”
Page 109: IV Repose and Plan
Diagonal lines = vitality
Horizontal and vertical = repose
Page 110: “architecture is the most readily accessible means of introducing an element of repose into a composition.”
Page 111: “… Egg-shaped compositions… Depend on rectilinear forms.”
Page 113: “… Compositions architectural in character… Are on the safe side.”
Page 114: Chapter 7 Emphasis of Spacing
Page 114: Whistler a great example of spacing
Page 116: I unity of spacing
Page 118: II vitality in spacing
Page 118: Goya… Capriciously spaced.
Page 119: “whistler shows how little material isvreally needed to make a fine work of art.”
Page 119: Find: Watt’s Jacob and Esau
Page 120: III infinity of spacing
Page 121: Cryptic Michelangelo quote: “a figure should be pyramidal, serpentine,and multiplied by one, two and three.”
Page 122: IV repose of spacing
Page 122: “repose may be obtained by leaving a certain portion of the picture blank; the larger the space, the more restful and quiet the spirit of the work.”. Ex: caravaggio’s Calling, David’s Marat.
Page 122: Velazquez: “carries search for repose to extreme: simple setting of floor and empty wall, but figures are also treated flatly and broadly.”
Page 124: Chapter 8 Emphasis of Recession
Page 124: I unity of recession
Page 127: Unfinished foregrounds can have benefits…
Page 127: II Vitality of recession
Page 127: Raphael… Disput’ and School of Athens
Page 128: III infinity of recession
Page 130: Infinite space in portraits… Go for “mysterious recession and atmosphere suggested by broken tones and vibrant quality.”
Page 130: Corot avoided foreground… Included nothing that wasn’t two or three hundred yards away.
Page 130: “many delightful landscapes are to be found in the backgrounds of figure paintings by the old masters… A painter might take hints from these works and experiment with landscape in which the middle distance.. Was the foreground.”
Page 131: IV repose of recession
Page 131: “Rubens ‘Fall of the Damned’ unpleasant… Christ Presented to the People by Rembrandt.. Shows agai. The effectiveness of empty space.”
Page 132: Chapter 9 Emphasis of Shadow
Page 132: “The arrangement of light and dark masses will be governed by the same laws, be they European or oriental…” this is the shadow pattern… Or what did Aristides call it?
Page 133: I unity of shadow
Page 133: Unity of tone and unity of mass…
Page 134: Find: pubis de Chavannes
Page 134: “a large easel picture needs to be lighter in key…” not what Merisi would say.
Page 135: Interesting idea on the relation of contrast to scale… Bigger the image, the less dark. Tell that to Odd.
Page 136: Van Dyck and Reynolds good examples of balance with light and dark.
Page 138: “the most forcible of all oppositions being obtained when the brightest light in a painting is brought into contact with the most intense passage of dark…. Yet this forcible contrast must be employed with caution or it will be destructive of breadth of effect.”
Page 139: Safety lies between these two extremes, in portraiture we may notice how Titian, Van Dyck and Velazquez repeat the contrasts on their sitter’s heads by one or two subordinate contrasts on the light on the hands or on some accessory.”
Page 140: The “chessboard” rule: vertical sections… Ensure that no darks or lights go unbroken.
Page 140: III infinity of shade
Page 140: “when shadows are filled vague reflected lights (this is what Odd is a master of) or when the lights themselves ar aired ad cloudedvwith faint shadows, the objects in a picture do not proclaim themselves at once, but leave room for the play of the imagination in filling up the parts obscured.”
Page 140: “the secret of Rembrandt…”
Page 141: “…real secret not arrangement of masses of light, but quality.” What does he mean by quality?
Page 141: “… But with experience (Rembrandt) found he could rely upon his drawing to give all the solidity he needed… That a better effect was produced when shadow was used broadly, as a means of suggesting the vibration and subtlety of atmospheric tone, and for rendering those delicacies of modeling on which all refined and profound expression depends. So in all of his mature work shadow is used as a veil, softening outlines which would otherwise looked harsh, suggesting the play of nature’s light upon illuminated surfaces and the mystery of nature’s darkness where the illumination was faint.”
Page 141: I love the ideavthat Drawing = Solidity.
Page 141: Mutatis mutandis
Page 142: Titian: “If light and shadow must have a sharp edge then it must invariably merge softly into the ground elsewhere.”
Page 142: “Titian’s light if examined will always be found to have a delicate half-tone at one edge, which connects them with the tone adjoining them: the shadows at some point will merge imperceptibly into a lighter tone.”
Page 143: When vigor of contrast is lost, unity and subtlety of effect is gained. … Later works of Rembrandt show this.
Page 144: IV Repose of Shadow
Page 144: Whistler is great example.
Page 145: Interesting analysis of contrast in relation to size of canvas.
Page 146: Chapter 10 Emphasis of Color
Page 146: “most painters are content to leave color to chance…” Hmmmmm, sounds familiar.
Page 146: Find: Prof. Denman W. Ross, A Theory of Pure Design
Page 147: “it is fantastic to think so.”
Page 147: I.e., landscape painters don’t realize that local color will kill harmony.
Page 148: Find: Watts “Mammon” uses the red to emphasize cruelty.
Page 148: Yellow is exhilarating
Page 148: Blue
Page 148: Purple
Page 149: Orange
Page 149: Green
Page 150: Brown, grey and olive
Page 151: “use pure white with the utmost parsimony.”
Page 151: See Titian’s Bacchus and Ariadne for a masterclass on limiting white.
Page 152: “general color of a work decidesmwhat it’s sentiment is to be.”
Page 152: So, general color scheme should sustain sentiment of theme.
Page 152: I unity of color
Page 152: First inquiry: howto ensure a harmonious whole and not a chance aggregate of conflicting hues?
Page 153: “scientific theory on harmony and contrast serves about as much as a canon on ideal proportion.”
Page 153: “Reynolds enunciates that the shadows of a picture should be of the same color… This is naturally most effective when a large portion consists of color, like in a Reynolds or a Rembrandt.”
Page 153: Another Reynolds principle: whites, high lights, should be warm, “as if illuminated by the setting sun.”
Page 157: Test of color harmony on European artists…
Page 158: “Venetians rightly hold the first place as colorized among the various schools of Italy.”
Page 158: “The peculiar glow and vibration of their pigments, the secret of which (probably depending upon the use of a tenpera ground underthe oil painting) has long been lost.”
Page 159: II Vitality of Color
Page 160: “There can be no doubt that the real way of introducing vitality into color is by devising a color contrast of a suitable kind.”
Page 160: On the vibration between laid-over colors and the ground…
Page 160: Something I’ve always considered, but never thought of in this way: “Hence the danger of repainting any part of a picture without ensuring that the new paint is laid over a ground which differs from it considerably in color.”
Page 161: Again, Titian’s Bacchus…
Page 162: Harmony depends on repetition? I would have said rhythm. Keep greatest contrast near point of interest.
Page 163: “Color contrasts are more lively and forcible if contours are kept sharp.”
Page 163: iII Infinity of Color
Page 163: “In good pictures, even the colors which appear to be unbroken reds and blues resolve themselves, when seen closely, into complex tints of infinite variety.”
Page 164: Achieving great color: “…with the Venetians and Titian it seems to depend upon the laying of a film of semi-opaque oil paint over a luminous ground.”
Page 164: “Turner used thin color on a ground of solid white… Watts used successive scumbles of pigment so stiff as to be nearly dry.”
Page 164: “Every colorist (artist) … Has always had to work out his own salvation in the end, by finding for himself the method which best expresses his personal ideals.”
Page 165: “the knowledge that constant gradations or vibration lies at the root of the whole matter may do a little; but the faculty of appreciating subtle color depends, or seems to depend, upon a fineness of perception in things not mathematically demonstrable, and upon a boldness of invention which must in some degree be inborn,”
Page 165: “Certain methods can be recommended to the beginner… In oil, the use of a transparent brown underpainting, in the manner of Rubens.”. I wonder if mussini brown pink would be a good color for an underpainting?
Page 165: “A sketch is almost always more pleasant in color than a highly finished picture.”. So the trick istoleave some of the finished painting “unfinished”?
Page 166: “Freshness and directness are akin to quality and subtlety.”
Page 166: Yes, but how does Caravaggio fit into this idea?
Page 166: Aha! “even painters like Reynolds, whose contrast of tones is forcible and who admit dark shadows, always take care that their lights shall incline to flatness, and shall be delicately modeled inside that apparent flatness.”
Page 166: IV Repose of Color
Page 167: Apply this to Caesar Portrait: “The most obvious way to achieve repose is the use of secondary and tertiary tones, especially in which blue rather than yellow or red is the dominant quality.”
Page 167: Interesting: again he makes the connection between intensity and scale: glaring reds and purples on a poster vs. an illuminated manuscript.
Page 168: Excellent! How to pick a tertiary in a landscape painting of red and green…
Page 168: “the second way of securing repose in color is by doing away with sharp edges so that tones melt imperceptibly into one another.”
Page 169: “Blurring too often results in ruining the stability of the design.” – this happened to me with Caesar today!
Page 169: “we can make the painting more restful b reducing the pitch of the coloring: the landscapes of Gainsborough… Reduces sharp blues to greysvand turquoise, sharp genes to olive and golden brown. Rembrandt too.”
Page 172: Part II Emphasis of Materials
Page 174: Chapter XI Processes of Drawing
Page 174: Processes of Drawing
Page 175: “For subtle purity… And portraits, silverpoint is invaluable.”
Page 176: Pen drawing
Page 177: Find: pen drawings by Charles Keene
Page 177: Reference to comics
Page 178: Red chalk: Raphael, Michelangelo, Holbein, Rubens
Page 180: Charcoal: “These dramatic effects, however, come so readily with charcoal that drawings made with it are apt to look showy and superficial.”
Page 181: Brush drawing
Page 184: Chapter XII Engraving
Page 203: Chapter XIII Water-Color and Egg Tempera.
Page 228: Find: Mr Berenson’s “The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance.”
Page 229: Chapter XIV Oil Painting: The Transparent Method
Page 230: 3 General Headings for Painting: Transparent, Mixed and Opaque.
Page 231: Find: unfinished picture of St. Barbara by Van Eyck
Page 231: Design drawn on gess, then fixed with a flesh tint.
Page 232: When finished the painting was exposed to the sun…!
Page 232: Sunlight and the reference to letters by Rubens.
Page 233: Venice Turp… Then amber or varnish.
Page 234: Rubens Technique: Brown ground over the white, shadows so dark that these were the shadows for the painting; then colors, thinly except lights and half-lights where opaque pigment was laid in with considerable body.
Question: how did this technique impact Velazquez?
Page 234: Rembrandt exemplifies the mixed method… Gainsborough offers a revival of the transparent method.
Page 235: Why was the transparent method superseded?
Page 236: Ah! Change in scale… And design alterations were nearly impossible.
Page 236: “Realism” was ultimately responsible.
Page 237: Find: Gainsborough’s “market Cart”
Page 238: Pre-raphaelite technique
Page 241: “transparency is of inestimable value to those whose feeling for color is imperfect or underdeveloped.”
Page 241: “it would seem that solid body and strong pigment would outcast a thin coat… But the reverse holds true.”
Page 243: Turner: “principle lights was first fixed by a forcible impasto.”
Page 243: “where extreme accuracy of form is required as in portraiture or figure work even the most gifted painter will hardly be able to dispense with a careful drawing to guide his eye.”
Page 244: Transparency provides greatest unity of color.
Page 245: Chapter XV: Oil Painting – The Mixed Method
Page 245: Velazquez… And the list!
Page 246: Titian is the “father” of the mixed method.
Page 246: Titian’s early work: transparent brown on luminous ground to some completeness; left to dry thoroughly; then color, some transparent, some opaque, tints frequently softened, spread or blended with fingers; first color done in broad flat masses; then painting put aside for some time, bleached out by exposure to sunshine; then painting was finished off with stumbles and glazes: Bacchus and Ariadne were produced this way.
Page 247: Two points about Bacchus: transparent brown underpainting not covered in the shadows and opaque paints were translucent films.
Secondly: though drying between coats was key.
Page 248: Titian’s later method: fully developed image in black, white and red, then left to dry, then glazes. For Holmes, not as luminous or successful as his previous method.
Page 249: Titian modeled in low relief. So too V (sometimes), Caravaggio in high relief.
Page 249: Dry your pictures thoroughly!
Page 250: Strong red grounds may sometime be serviceable.
Page 251: Constable, Whistler, then Van Dyck!
Page 251: Rembrandt technique: Similar to Rubens but… First worked out a monochrome sketch in a fiercely modeled impasto containing much solid white. Then on the impasto, transparencies… Or opaques when needed. Even highlights were glazed.
Page 252: Velazquez! Technique based more on all a prima: one coat of paint containing a lot of oil
Page 252: Find: Burlington Magazine, jan 1908, pp. 102-205 on CJ Ho,mes on Hals.
Page 253: Velazquez:”indeed his fame rests on the fact that no one has combined such decision and finality of brushwork with so much naturalism and pictorial good taste.” paves way for Goya to Whistler to Manet to Carolus to Sargent.
Page 255: On Reynolds… “ghosts!”
Page 255: Craquelure?
Page 256: Reynold’s influence led to 30 years of “brown sauce” .. Watts… Crome? A paint who resembles Velazquez.
Page 256: Find: Crome
Page 257: Turner worked on a thick flake white ground.
Page 257: Constable: Eclisse! Glazing over a bright light then sometimes working into it with a cool opaque color… In later years he used the palette knife to apply touches of pure color.
Page 258: Poussin French heir to Italian Renaissance, Watteau heir to Flemish. Chardin used both.
Page 259: Daumier and Millet
Page 259: Corot’s method: on luminous white foundation, built up picture in transparent monochrome. When dry, colors applied in thin films, forcible impasto for high lights.
Page 259: Monticello, Courbet, Manet
Page 261: “The most elaborate effects of quality can be attained by judicious use of glazing and scumbling”
Page 263: Van Dyck, Velazquez…
Page 264: “On the whole it is evident that a firm white ground, if necessary veiled with some simple tint, is the first condition of safety… Next paint should be as thin as possible; if done all a prima, so much the better.”
Page 265: Excellent advice on brushes…
Page 266: Chapter XVI Oil Painting The Opaque Method
Page 266: Watts and Chavannes back the opaque method.
Page 267: “opaque” fails the infinity test…
Page 271: On Watts!!
Page 276: Part III Emphasis of character
Page 278: Chapter XVIi The Painter’s Aims and Ideals
Page 278: Extraordinary quote!!!
Page 280: “Despotic Art”
Page 281: Massacio and Piero della Francesca…
Page 282: Success in “virtue of the things they omit, almost as much by the assistance of the things they express.”
Page 282: What makes a painting heroic…
Page 285: Individual Art, four types: Dramatic (art of crisis), Lyrical (art of mood), Satiric (art of ridicule), Narrative (art of description)
Page 285: Find: Mr. Roger Fry
Page 286: Rembrandt, raising of Lazarus, dramatic, then T and V
Page 288: Again, Rembrandt. Drama is mostly light and shade.
Page 288: Before or after the moment… Then wat of Rembrandt’s Samson?
Page 289: Lyrical painting… Begun with Piero Di cosimo and Giorgione.
Page 290: Giogione to Titian to V to Van Dyck
Page 290: Lyrical = contemplative, charm us into sympathy with the artists mood. Dramatic painting is moment of swift and significant change, Lyrical painting, the crisis is remote, time moves slowly.
Page 291: Here is the compare and contrast between dramatic and lyrical…
Page 291: Begin with definition and contrast, end with harmony and fusion. This indicates the lyrical mood demands more skill and experience from the artist than the dramatic.
Page 292: Bingo! “We cannot convey subtle or delicate feeling in art without a corresponding quality in our workmanship.”
Page 292: Satiric Painting
Page 294: Narrative painting
Page 295: Of all forms, most cavorts by the educated public…
Page 296: “indeed, the great artists of all periods, though they have had the highest regard for truth, have never regarded truth as identical with deceptive imitation though this fallacious identity… Has provided an obvious and plausible critical formula.
Page 296: Interesting note on Leonardo…
Page 297: The best of the narrative painters: Van Eyck, Holbein, Chardin, Vermeer…
Page 300: Th formulas passed down by the masters must be refreshed by the application of living nature…. Narrative painting is a splendid tonic, but proves an intolerable diet.
Page 302: Michelangelo! Ordered away from sculpture to paint the ceiling!
Page 303: Chapter 18 the painter’s training
Page 304: The training process: all great artist start with precision; precision is modified by a desire for a greater breadth of mass; this desire in turn is exchanged on the approach of old age for a love of freedom of brush work and a disregard for all minor details.
Page 306: Nice anecdote on Raphael…
Page 307: Chiaroscuro is a valuable servant only when ruled by a despot.
Page 308: The lessons learned by Raphael and Titian…
Page 309: Van Dyck and Reynolds… Then Rembrandt…
Page 310: Rembrandt “secures a mastery of certain aspects of human personality which remains supreme and unique.”
Page 311: Rembrandt and Memory…
Page 311: Find: articles on Rembrandt in the Burlington magazine…
Page 312: Development of the artist corresponds to that of the human race:
Page 313: Transition from Dramatic to Lyrical… That should accompany the new body of work: “Breadth and Oxygen.”
Page 313: The common practice of teaching an artist to draw and paint precisely and accurately at the outset of his career is absolutely correct.
Page 314: Relying fully on models vs. A combination of models and memory; the latter is what Odd does. Tim, you must aspire to “give solidity to the things you imagine.”
Page 315: All great artists, however precocious eir beginning, have a long time in attaining to the summary breadth, fusion and emphasis of their final manner.
Page 315: “The artist must remain a student all the time he is attempting to be a master.
Page 316: “No instance I believe is known of a painter regaining the powers of his youth after he has once succumbed to the temptations of indolence or popularity.”
Page 316: “the best remedy for the perilous disease of “middle age”–endless experiment…. Incessant alternation between working form memory and working from the model, until the period of experiment is succeeded by that of experience–of perfect knowledge.”
Page 317: Quote the following paragraphs with keyboard!
Page 319: Chapter 19 the future of painting
Page 328: Taste in the arts…
Page 331: Why evolution of the representation of nature in art is possible: the expression of vitality is not confined to an all-round statement of things in themselves alive, but may be conveyed also, and often more effectively, by an emphatic statement of a few significant features.
Page 332: Unhesitating selection and omission is open to one real peril: emptiness.
Page 336: Chapter 20 Some Popular Fallacies
Page 336: Fascinating: is subject-matter, it’s inward significance, more important than it’s technical expression, it’s outward decorative aspect?
Page 337: “The illustrator, in consequence, has always enjoyed it’s immediate favors at the expense of the true painter… Luckily, ultimate rank is not settled by the popular voice, but by the accumulated judgement of trained minds…and they have recognized that decorative excellence is an essential condition of artistic immortality.”
Page 338: More on the relationship between Decoration and Significance…
Page 339: Identity of construction implies identity of thought.
Page 340: “the advantage of using only a limited number of colors is still rarely insisted upon.”
Page 340: “Truth to Nature” – were this so the best works of art would be those that resemble photographs.”
Page 341: A few points seem clear: On Unity: all the symbols employed in a single work should be of the same kind and have the same relation to nature.
Page 341: On Vitality: Vitality is enhanced if the symbol states no more than the essential features, if it states them clearly, and if it states them swiftly, for the very swiftness of the execution will convey a sense of power and liveliness to the spectator. This vitality must also be accompanied with the tenderness and subtlety born of long and earnest insight into nature, or the symbol, though spirited, will be shallow.
Page 341: Repose involves that the symbol shall take it’s place quietly in the work for which it has been designed.
Page 342: So long as a painter’s symbols breathe that living force and acknowledge that subtle tenderness, they will possess the essential character of nature, whatever facts, or details, or appearances, they may, for pictorial reasons have to sacrifice
Page 342: On Values and Finish…
Page 342: …and not the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans?
Page 343: Coarse, empty, lifeless… Great words for special people.
Page 343: Values may be unquestionably useful a a means of training students to grasp the general aspect of things, as part of their artistic alphabet; but it is no more a complete solution of artistic problems than knowledge of the alphabet is a complete equipment for the poet.
Page 343: If Velazquez, who is sometimes named as the great master of values, depended for his reputation upon values alone, he might rank lower than the shadowy Mazo. It is because he could paint the living soul and the princely refinement of his sitters, and could fuse that life and subtlety into superbly decorative canvases, that his name stands high–not because he marched values with conspicuous taste.
Page 343: On Finish… All painters know that it is frequently impossible to retain in a finished picture the freshness and spirit of a rapid sketch.
Page 343: Find: Mr. roger Fry’s “Reynolds’ Discourses”
Page 344: Finish is the balance between Vitality and Infinity. The question is: where must the painter stop?
Page 344: It would seem as if the painter had to make at the outset a great decision: should the aim be clearness of impression, or should it be richness of content?
Page 344: If richness of content is the objective, fuse details with large masses (titian is the master).
Page 344: Average talent should aim at clearness of impression
Page 345: Another take on “illustration”: a mass of tedious detail = dull illustration.
Page 346: A good ideal: outcome should be the result of a personal experience.
Page 346: All painters except Narrative painters thus produce their effects by the emphatic rendering of some part or phase of nature… Which is the business of the painter’s personality.
Page 347: The mechanical part can be learned with the help of others… But subject matter must be chosen… If done before the labo is in vain.
Page 347: Good Picture= “Personal Experience Emphasized by Emotion in terms of Decoration”… It is only in their perfect fusion that the solution of the problem of painting can be found, and to master the secret of this fusion is the hardest task of all.
Page 348: …until some royal road is invented…
sed-u-lous – adjective – (of a person or action) showing dedication and diligence : he watched himself with the most sedulous care.
This book was a great pleasure to read; each paragraph a joyous reminder of all things technically practical and pragmatic. The biggest surprise for me was finding an anecdote on the teaching methods of Sargent’s teacher, Carolus-Duran:
This life work was more or less an injury and loss to me in many ways.
—Albert Abendschein, author of The Secret of the Old Masters, published in 1909
As such, I wouldn’t dare be the one to spoil Mr. Abendshein’s efforts by readily revealing the “secret.” It’s actually a fascinating read: the author spends most of the book walking you through his torment (via his many experiments in pursuit of the secret) until he gets to the end and reveals the discovered secret in a couple of paragraphs.
You can find a link to this book in PDF format in the Bibliography.
Below are the annotations I made while reading this book on the iPad:
The business of the artist is to see to it that his talent be so developed that he may prove a fit instrument for the expression of whatever it may be given him to express.
Great things are only done in art when the creative instinct of the artist has a well-organized executive faculty at his disposal.
—Harold Speed, The Science and Practice of Drawing
P8 – “Verisimilitude is not truth, just the appearance of truth.”
P12 – “Mark Twain seemed to have gotten it about right when he concluded that although history doesn’t repeat itself, it does sometimes rhyme.” Twain may have said that… but Twain also has the “Periodic Law of Repetition. See Letters from the Earth.
P42 – Romans were never too proud to learn.
P87 – “At one point Livy has him (Hannibal) say: ‘Many things which are difficult in themselves, are easily effected by contrivance.’ This was tactical Hannibal in a nutshell.”
P162 – Livy’s “cinematic” description of the post-Cannae battlefield.
P184 – Roman siege of Syracuse in 212 b.c.e. “Property rights were given the same regard as academic freedom by the rampaging Romans, who picked the place (Syracuse) clean–so clean that the haul brought home by Marcellus for his ovation was said to have kick-started the city’s passion for Greek art.”
P239, 240 – Sophonisba’s death: “Choose my fate as your heart may prompt you, but whatever you do, even if it means my death, don’t surrender me to the arrogant and brutal whim of any Roman… What a woman of Carthage–what the daughter of Hasdrubal–has to fear from a Roman is all too clear.”
Anyone can learn to paint and to analyze physical truths as facts, but few have the power of self-analysis. The artist must first be a dreamer, and then a sane analyzer of those dreams. Again, “There can be no expression without previous impression.”
Learn to discern the exact boundary between synthetic re-creation, suggestion, and mere caricature. In caricature lies the weakness of our so-called “modern” ideas of art. The best “modern” painters do not stoop to caricature. A form may be so modulated, so reshaped, so transmuted, that it fits perfectly into our ideas of certain requisites in a picture, but on more step past this line of good sense brings us to the abyss of caricature, and all is again weak and puerile; for the shapes have become extraordinary, and call our attention to their bizarreness.
Caricature is not really art; it is a travesty on art, and is very easily arrived at. Art possesses the poignance of caricature, with the reserve of profundity. A great work of art is complete. It is not the result of concentration on any one department. It does not “go” for color, or for organization or for movement, or for symbols requiring a code. It has the best of all these things in it–hidden away, if you will. It needs not explanation, no apology.
– John F. Carlson, from Carlson’s Guide to Landscape Painting, circa 1929.
It is this deep sincerity, this deep appreciation of the significance of things that makes one picture great among a thousand lesser ones, and causes us to feel, when we behold it, that we have thought and felt that way all our lives.
– John F. Carlson, from Carlson’s Guide to Landscape Painting, circa 1929.
The present generation appears to be composed of a new, and, at least with respect to the arts, a superior order of beings. Generally speaking, their thoughts, their feelings, and language on these subjects, differ entirely from what they were sixty years ago. No just opinions were at that time entertained on the merits of ingenious productions of this kind. The state of the public mind incapable of discriminating excellence from inferiority, proved incontrovertibly, that a right sense of art in the spectator, can only be acquired by long and frequent observation, and that without proper opportunities to improve the mind and the eye, a nation would continue insensible of the true value of the fine arts.
– Joseph Farrington, from “Memoirs of Reynolds,” circa 1813
I’ve begun reading the essays included in a catalog I picked up last May while visiting the Prado and so far the first one is truly fantastic (if only all art analysis were written with such grace and clarity!).
The catalog is called Velázquez’s Fables and the first essay is entitled “Velázquez as History Painter: Rivalry, Eminence and Artistic Conciousness” written by Javier Portús (I’m guessing that whoever translated should be given credit for a wonderful translation, though perhaps dear Señor Portús also writes in English?). Please note, I’ve added this catalog to the Bibliography.
I’d like to share two excerpts, first an anecdote:
Antonio Palomino published the first in-depth biography of Velázquez in 1724. This account, which promplty served to distinguish the artist as a unique figure in the history of Spanish painting, still proves an indeispensable reference work on Velázquez as an individual and on the context in which he developed his work. One of the paragraphs in this Life that merits attention is the one in which the author elucidated the reasons behind the painter’s unrivalled position in the Spanish court: “He was very pithy in his remarks and repartee: His Majesty said to him one day that there were not lacking poeple who declared that his skill was limited to knowing how to paint a head; to which he replied: ‘Sire, they favour me greatly, for I do not know that there is anyone who can paint a head.’ What a remarkable reaction to jealousy in a man who had proved his universal command of the art….”
Second, a keen analysis:
… another crucial aspect of Velázquez’s career and of the history of painting itself, namely, that formal conquests advance narrative discoveries. Hence, the more sophisticated the tools of representation the artist has at his command, the greater the means at his disposal to construct a complex narrative plot… whereas in the aforementioned early work the elements that can be imbued with meaning (the old woman and the young maid, the objects on the table, adn the background scene) are independent of one another and their integration proves somewhat awkward, in the Fable of Arachne there is a very fluid interrelation between the different elements and they all serve to make up a coherent whole.
Exceptional writing, exceptional insight. Thank you, Javier!